Publication Date: April 13, 1983
Walter J. Cummins graduated from the Power for Abundant Class in 1962.
He received his Bachelor of Science degree in Education from Ohio State University in 1968 and his Master of Education degree in Secondary School Administration in 1978 from Wright State University.
He was ordained to the Christian by The Way International in 1968. He has studied at The Way International under Victor Paul Wierwille and K.C.Pillai. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, he was director of the Research department of the Way International and served as assistant to the president.
April 13, 1983
Twenty-seventh Corps Night
Literal translation = a word for word translation.
Literal according to usage = a translation which reproduces the thoughts and meaning of
the original, based on the words in the original in relation to the verse, the context, the
remoter context, and to whom it is written.
Expanded translation = translation which reproduces the original with many alternative
meanings and explanatory renderings.
Paraphrase = translation which gives the gist of the original without corresponding to each
word used in the original (we do not use this type.)
II Corinthians - the opening part centers on deliverance in time of trouble where you have
pressures and afflictions from the world, the adversary, and the thing they needed was
encouragement. Then it gets into Paul's second intended visit, but he did not go in order to
spare them, and he wrote a letter instead because he knew that was the need. He was also
aware of Satan's devices, how he tries to get at you and harden you hearts when you have
been reproved, rather than love, forgive and encourage one another.
Takes us now to where Titus did not come and that put more pressure on Paul's life, in
addition to the pressure he already had from Ephesus. Yet he says we are able ministers.
This section is a real encouraging section, in II Cor..
It encourages them, that no matter what happens in the world and the hardness that the
world tries to build, you look at what the Word has to say and how the Word can get you
out of the mess the world tries to get you into.
UII Cor. 2:12
Paul was at Ephesus and that was where he wrote I Corinthians. He sent Titus to Corinth.
Paul left Ephesus and traveled up to Troas. Troas is north of there along the seacoast.
There was a door opened to speak God's Word.
UII Cor. 2:13
He sent Titus to Corinth and he was waiting for him to come back. Titus did not come
back so Paul started on his itinerary and went to Troas. Paul was not at peace. He wanted
to see Titus. Now he is on his way to Macedonia. It does not tell us that he found Titus
there, but later on in II Cor., we will see that he did. Titus met him at Macedonia. After
Titus comes, he writes this second epistle before he makes his trip down to Corinth.
UII Cor. 2:14-16
"triumph," = thriambeuō = to lead in triumph. This was used of a Roman triumphal
procession. After the war was over and they won the war and brought their captives back,
they had a triumphal procession down the street with all the soldiers, the captives and
things in celebration of their victory. It is only used one other place in the N.T.
He lead them in triumph! In this triumphal procession, they not only had the victors, but
also the captives. In Col. 2, his leading the captives in triumph. In II Cor., his leading the
victors in triumph. Triumphal Procession: Check SNS #986.
Roman triumph was the highest honor bestowed upon a returning Roman general.
In order to have a triumphal procession, five criteria needed:
1) The victory had to be complete and decisive. It couldn't be a half-won battle.
2) Victory had to be over a foreign enemy. It could not be a civil war, or the uprising of
3) At least 5,000 of the enemy had to be killed in battle.
4) Territory had to be added to the state.
5) The battle had to end the war.
When these 5 criteria were fulfilled, then the general and his troops could enjoy a
triumphal procession in Rome. It began outside the city of Rome and ended at the capital.
The Senate paid for the triumphal march and the Senators and the magistrates led the
march. Next came trumpeters, then floats, and pictures depicting the captured cities. Then
came the spoils of war - the gold the silver, jewels and armor. Then, there were 70 white
oxen which were to be sacrificed after the triumphal march. Then came the war captives
and they were heavily chained, most of whom would be killed. Then, came musicians and
incense. Then in a splendorous decorated chariot, the triumphing general, robed in purple,
wearing a gold crown and carrying an ivory scepter and a laurel branch. At the end of the
parade were the soldiers themselves.
That is the picture described here in Corinthians, that he leads us in triumph in Christ. The
war is over! We have won! We are no longer in a war! All these criteria have been
fulfilled from a spiritual standpoint. And so we follow our "general," down the street in
this triumphal procession. The street in Rome in which the parade went were lined with
people and decorated with laurel. Incense burned and filled the air with perfume. To the
captives, the perfume was the smell of death. To the victorious army, it was the smell of
life upon life (II Cor. 2:16.)
The analogy of the triumphal march is appropriate to show the honor God bestows upon
His people and how the Christian can walk in the victory of life. The war is over! We are
more than conquerors! That is why today, the analogy dominating the epistles is athletic
rather than military.
UII Cor. 2:16
"sufficient," = hikanos, = sufficient in number or sufficient in ability.
Here, it is used of sufficient in ability, which would mean competent or worthy. Who is
competent for these things? Worthy of these things? Who is worthy of such a triumphal
procession? Christ and the believers! (Those he leads in this triumphal march.)
Who is sufficient is a rhetorical question. Figure of speech, UerotisisU, which is axiomatic
that Christ and those who follow him in the march are worthy. II Cor. 3:5 explains this in
II Cor. 3:5 - "sufficient," = a form of the word hikanos, used three times in verses 5 & 6.
God made us worthy. We did not fight the battle. He fought it for us. He made us worthy
to be in this triumphal procession.
In verse 6, "able," - third place it is used in these two verses. God made us competent
ministers of the new covenant.
UII Cor. 2:14
UNew English BibleU - "But thank be to God who continually leads us about captive in
Christ's triumphal procession." ( It is really messed up.)
UWaymouthU - "But to God be the thanks, who in Christ ever leads us in his triumphal
procession, displaying everywhere through us the sweetness of the knowledge of him."
(Pretty good job.)
UNew International VersionU - (Does a pretty good job.) "But thanks be to God, who always
leads us in the triumphal procession in Christ, and through us spreads everywhere the
fragrance of the knowledge of him.
UII Cor. 2:17
"corrupt," = to dilute, in the Aramaic, which is an excellent translation. In the Greek, it
comes from the root meaning a peddler or a huckster, they were accused of mixing water
with their wine. Also, accused with putting the bad fruit and vegetables in the bottom of
the basket and putting the good stuff on the top. We are not as many who dilute or water
down the Word of God.
"sincerity," = eilikrineia; eili = sunlight; krineia = judge.
It is used of that which is found pure and sincere by examination in the sunlight.
Department store lights will not give you true light — sunlight will show the true colors.
"pure," - because he has been examined in the sunlight.
II Cor. 4:4 - "light," — then you would see their true colors if the light shined on them.
Verse 6, He has shined in our hearts to show our true colors.
We have to speak the Word and not dilute it, but show the true colors of the Word.
UAmplified BibleU - Read
II Cor. 3:1 - All rhetorical questions - No they don't! "Letters of commendation," - it
became customary and indeed necessary in the early church. Because of the large number
who tried to impose themselves on local churches as itinerant teachers or preachers.
During the 2nd century persecutions, letters of commendation were more important than
ever as a means of identifying authentic seekers of refuge or bearers of messages. By the
4th century, when Christianity was the reigning religion in the Roman Empire, they
retained their usefulness as a means of keeping the "unauthorized heretics," as well as the
pagans out of the UhospicesU.
The Apostle Paul, however, did not need a letter of commendation to or from the
Corinthians. They knew who he was. He knew who they were.
UII Cor. 3:2, 3
"Forasmuch as ye are," - UdeleteU! They did not need a letter of commendation, they had
one, they were the epistle of Christ. When you speak in tongues, it is the proof in the
senses world that you have holy spirit on the inside, that is you letter of commendation!
"the living God," - used 28 times in the Bible; used in contrast to idolatry because they
served dead stone, wood.
He did not write it on stone like the idols, but he wrote it on the fleshy tables of the heart.
UII Cor. 3:4
"trust," = pepoithēsis, = trust or active obedience. You could trust in a letter of
commendation, but you can have greater trust in the spirit of God living within. Speaking
in tongues is greater proof than any letter.
UII Cor. 3:5
He made us sufficient so we can walk in this triumphal procession.
UII Cor. 3:6
"letter," - Old Testament law.
"testament," = diathēkē, = covenant - not arrived at by means of compromise. Made by
arrangement of one party with absolute power which the other party can either accept or
reject. But he cannot change it. It cannot be a contract where you negotiate it. This is a
covenant from God. Accept it or reject it, but you cannot negotiate it.
There was a covenant made between God and the believers in the Old Testament. One was
between God and Noah, another was between God and Abraham. An intrical part of the
covenant between God and His people in the Old Testament is the law, covenant, given at
Mt. Sinai. Generally, when you read the term, "Old Covenant," (in the New Testament,) it
refers to that which is in the law. But it was known in the O.T., that God would make a
new covenant with Israel because the old covenant did not do everything that needed to be
done. It did not give life. So, there was a need for a new covenant and it is prophesied of
in Jeremiah 31:31-33. It is quitted in Hebrews 8:6-13, 9:24-28. The covenants are to
Israel. Christ has not yet returned out of the holy of holies for Israel. Meanwhile, there is
the mystery, the Church.
II Corinthians - The Church of the Body is not under the covenant or a part of the
covenant. The believers in the Church are not under the covenant, but they are partakers of
the promise as it says in Ephesians. It talks about covenant at the last supper, the cup,
which was the new covenant in his blood. That he left as a memorial to the Church. But
the last supper, when he did it for Israel, it was the establishing and ratifying of the new
covenant with Israel. Read, UThe Words WayU, page 216.
The full benefits of the new covenant with Israel will not be manifested until sometime in
Romans 15:8 - Jesus Christ is a minister to the circumcision. The covenants pertain to
Covenant = diathēkē - used 33 times in New Testament. Used 17 times in Hebrews.
Always used of Israel, not the Church, except in two places:
1) I Cor 11:25 - deals with communion - but it was a memorial to the Church, not a
law. Do it in remembrance of that covenant.
2) II Cor. 3:6 - How can we be able ministers of the new covenant if the new
covenant is not a part of the Church today? Verses 7-16 are a figure of speech,
UparemboleU, parenthetical addition, complete of itself. That means you can go
from verse 6 to 17 and it should flow and that is exactly what it does. It is the
spirit that makes the difference, not only today for the Church, but also for Israel
in the future, that God is going to write the law in their hearts.
UII Cor. 3:17
"liberty," = freedom
Romans 10:4 - Christ is the end of the law. The reason he could end the law is because
now you have something greater to walk by and that is the spirit of God within you.
James 1:25 - "law," = bondage
"liberty," = freedom
It is a paradoxal statement. You have a law of liberty. It is the law written in our hearts, it
is the spirit which allows us freedom to live. You have freedom to walk by that spirit,
UII Cor 3:6
"minister," = diakonos, = minister or servant.
In verses-7-9, "ministration," = diakonia, = it is the service. (Exodus 34:29-35.) In verse 8,
"rather glorious," = more glorious. This is the parenthesis which explains the two
covenants, and the covenants were to Israel.
UII Cor 3:14
"is being done away," - present tense - for Israel. For the Church, it is already done away,
but Israel is waiting for Christ to come back.
UII Cor 3:15, 16
"their heart" - the children of Israel.
"shall be," - puts it in the future, when Israel turns back to the Lord.
Romans, Chapters 9-11, are sections, not addressed to Church, but to the Gentiles and
Judeans. Covenant is future for Israel.
UII Cor. 3:6
Has to be future because the new covenant would not be here today. Aramaic, "that we
should become able ministers of the new covenant."
Ten Manuscripts add the word, genesthai, which means to become. This is after the word
Happens when Christ returns.
Jude 14 & 15, - Saints are going to come to execute judgment. I Cor. 6:2, - You will not
be sitting on clouds all day. II Thes. l:7ff - Not only angels, but saints also. "messengers of
might." - "with his saints,"
Romans 9:4! Covenants pertain to Israel not the Church.
When they were finished with the triumphal march, those victors generally were given or
When we are in this triumphal procession our work is not done, we just get more work to
do when Christ returns, as ministers of the new covenant. What makes us worthy to do
this? Because we were so good in the battle? No. Cause God, through His Son, Jesus
Christ, made us completely worthy.
UII Cor. 3:12
Hope! Cause we look to the future, the covenant, cause we are going to be doing
something we have a position worth looking at. "boldness" = plainness.
UII Cor. 3:17, 18
"open face," = uncovered face -not like Moses. Our faces shine, but we leave them
uncovered. Let you face shine, you have got Christ in you.
"beholding as in a glass," = middle voice - beholding yourself in a mirror. Present tense -
continuous action - constantly! Seeing the glory of the Lord. Do not see cobwebs, but
Christ in you which is the hope of glory, the glory of the Lord.
Today! You can see the glory of the Lord, just look deeper than skin.
If you look in the mirror, and see the world, that is what you are going to live. But if you
see it is Christ in you, you behold the glory of the Lord in yourself. Then you are changed,
transfigured, transformed; you get that figure in you mind; you become a reflection of what
you are spiritually.
Let it shine. Reflect what you are spiritually and not what the world tells you that you are.
End of Teaching