Publication Date: 01-25-1984
Walter J. Cummins graduated from the Power for Abundant Class in 1962.
He received his Bachelor of Science degree in Education from Ohio State University in 1968 and his Master of Education degree in Secondary School Administration in 1978 from Wright State University.
He was ordained to the Christian by The Way International in 1968. He has studied at The Way International under Victor Paul Wierwille and K.C.Pillai. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, he was director of the Research department of the Way International and served as assistant to the president.
Key to success – leadership remaining like-minded.
One key concept in II Corinthians is the word “encouragement” (used with greater frequency in
II Corinthians than any other epistle). After they were reproved, they needed a little
Joy (key word in Phil.) is an encouraging fruit. Whenever reproved, you need that encouragement.
Joy is always the goal of reproof. Joy is emphasized in Philippians and mentioned in
II Corinthians 1:23, 24.
Goal of reproof epistle – Get them to the point of joy. The word “comfort” is translated
Philemon 23, 24 – Epaphras salutes you. Epaphras is with Paul; not where epistle is going
(Colosse). All of those salute you.
Note: Change notes accordingly in Background of Philippians: It was still written shortly after
Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians but these five men were still with Paul when he wrote Philemon.
Prayer in v. 3-11 for fellowship (v. 5), fruit (v. 11), and abounding love (v. 9-11).
As we have a full knowledge of Word and all spiritual insight (Corps Principles One and Two)
mixed with love we are able to distinguish between good and best. We are after what is
spiritually the best.
1 : 12 contending together with joy and rejoicing in the fact of conflict and strife
bonds in Christ – bonds in relation to Christ or because of Paul’s stand for the gospel.
Paul’s commitment to Christ was evident by his physical imprisonment.
“bond” has double meaning, figure of speech amphibologia – specifically, it has a. meaning
physical (physical bonds he was in, chained and kept by soldier) and spiritual (bound to Christ).
Many of the prophecies are like this. Immediate fulfillment in the near future and another
fulfillment which is somewhat future. Like Isaiah, the prophecy of a young woman who would
have a son and call his name Emmanuel. That had an immediate fulfillment – child born shortly.
It also had a fulfillment in Christ. A duo fulfillment.
1 : 3 could be amphibologia:
a. concerning your constant remembrance of me (physical)
b. I thank my God with every remembrance of you. (spiritual)
1 : 7 a. You have me in your heart, (physical) Romans 15:27; Philippians 4:10, 15.
b. I have you in my heart, (spiritual)
1 : 12 would – want, wish, desire
understand – ginoskō
happened – (Aram.) my own event or deed
(Grk.) my own affairs; the things that I have gone through. Referring to
those things he had gone through that brought him into bondage.
furtherance – advantage, progress, the advancement of the gospel like a scout forging
before his troops so the troops could advance; pioneer clearing the way.
manifest – become obvious, published
1 : 13 palace – (Grk.) praitōrion. Praetorium is the Latin spelling.
Four major ideas of what it was:
1. Emperor’s palace. King James uses this. The major objection to this idea is
that under the early Caesars the image of the Republic was carefully
guarded. The residences of the provincial governors were called praetoriums,
but to call the residence of the Emperor praetorium would imply
that all the Romans were under military despotism. Would not use this same
title. No inscription has ever been found in which palace at Rome is called a
2. Barracks of praetorium guard attached to palace or camp outside of Rome.
But, there is no usage in literature of praetorium referring to barracks
attached to the palace at Rome.
3. Judicial authorities. Those who were responsible for Paul’s trial. A man
named Mommsen used word praetorium as the judicial authority. Problem:
Mommsen is writing about 3rd century and not 1st century. Evidently was
never used of the judicial authority in the 1st century of the time Paul is
4. Praetorium guard. 10,000 soldiers originally of Italian birth; but later, came
from other places. Formed the Imperial guard. Apostle Paul bound and
chained by a soldier which was part of the praetorium guard. Since guard
was revolved and changed regularly, not long before all the praetorium
guard was aware of Paul’s bold stand on the Word.
in all other places – (Grk.) all the rest. (Aram.) to all the rest; everyone. If palace is
referring to praetorium guard, Paul’s immediate contact, then it moved out from there.
1 : 12 But, my brothers, I want you to know that the things I have gone through have led to the
advancement of the gospel.
1 : 13 Thus my bonds have been publicized throughout all the praetorium guard and to every
one else as being associated with my stand in Christ.
The Word moved out from one Twig. Luke is with him; others join him later. But it started with
the guard and moved out to all Rome. We can do the same where we work and live. Tell friends
and relatives. Maybe not everyone believes, but the Word gets out to everyone that these bonds
are associated with my stand in Christ.
1 : 14 in the Lord – should go after “confident”. This phrase means they’re committed. In
Christ means fellowship; in the Lord means commitment, doulos, sold out.
bonds – figure of speech amphibologia. His being put in bonds physically and that he was
bound to Christ. That’s the reason he’s there. He took a stand on the Word.
bold – to dare; dared to speak the Word without fear.
Word – followed by phrase “of God” in many Grk. and Aram. texts.
1 : 14 Most of the brothers, confidently trusting in the Lord, are much more daring to speak the
Word of God fearlessly because of my bonds [physically and spiritually] .
It’s not only moving among praetorium guard, but spreading like wildfire throughout the city.
1 : 15 preach – proclaim, herald, kerussō
envy – internal jealousy. Ill will at the expense of another. Deprivation of someone else.
Manifests itself as strife or discord. Corinthians starts out with divisions because there’s
contentions, divisions, envy, jealousy, fighting. “I’m of Paul, of Cephas”, etc. But here,
in Philippi, it’s more subtle because problems were in one Body. They were preaching
Word, but motives were different. Some because of envy and strife because of their own
ego. They wanted to be president, Limb coordinator. Not because of service. Not
because they want to move the Word to serve, to bless. Not out of love. They’re doing it
out of jealousy. Want to get ahead. They’re sowing discord. It looks good. Subtle.
Phil. 1:18 – using wrong motive. Philippians 2:3 – let nothing be done through strife or
Don’t be so concerned about your own movement up the ladder that you step on everyone else.
Two ways to climb a ladder – someone going too slow: 1) Ask if you can go around or
2) trample them. Spiritually you ought to be at the top. It takes an attitude of serving.
Philippians 2:20 – everyone wants their own thing; envy, ego, conceit.
It’s got to be full knowledge and spiritual insight with abounding love.
It doesn’t look as bad at Philippi as at Corinth senses-wise; but cancer is cancer and you have to
get rid of it. Pray for someone or surgically remove it. Whether large or small, it has to be removed.
A good heart with mistakes is better than an envious heart with religiously perfect behavior.
1 : 15 Aramaic ends it with “and love”.
Verses 16 and 17 in many MSS and critical Grk. texts are switched around except for the words
“the one” and “the other”. Read v. 15 and 17 together.
of – the genitive of the gospel. He was not defending gospel, so cannot be genitive of
origin. Must be a genitive of relation. Answered with truth in the face of accusation
because he was in bonds. Notice it was by the good news of the Word, not with man’s
intellect, but with the full knowledge of the Word and spiritual insight abounding with
love. They preach Christ. They herald Christ. They proclaim Christ of good will and
love knowing that he is set for the defense. If I preach the Word with love and goodwill,
it’s going to help you at your defense. But if you’re sitting in jail and someone comes
along and does it out of envy and strife, puts more pressure on you.
1 : 16 contention – (Aram.) strife, jealous envy. (Grk.) strenuous endeavor for superiority at
expense of anything or anyone that stands in its way. Problem there was the motive.
not sincerely – not purely (hagnos, unadulterated.) Referring here to their intentions or
motives. Not with purity of motive or purity of intention.
supposing - to think, suppose, expect. Bullinger’s Lexicon says: used of something, yet
doubtful with idea of wrong judgment or deceit. They expect something to happen.
add – (Grk.) egeirō. To raise; arouse; awake thou that sleepest; stir up; insight. Also
used to cause to appear before a judge or before the public.
affliction – phlipsis. Used of the pressures of life or mental pressures. They think with
conceited ideas to stir up more pressure for the Apostle Paul in his appearing before the
judges at his trial that will make it very difficult for him to be acquitted.
Looks like Body is going two ways and bringing additional problems to Paul.
bonds – amphibologia
1 : 15 Indeed, some proclaim Christ out of envy and discord, but others with goodwill and love,
1 : 16 knowing that I am set for my defense [answer of truth in the face of accusation] by the
1 : 17 But those who proclaim Christ out of envy, rather than with pure motives, intend to stir
up trouble and add pressure to my bonds [detracting from my defense].
By stirring up trouble and adding pressure to bonds, they make his defense more difficult.
1 : 18 what then – (Aram.) omitted. (Grk.) So what? Formula used for transition.
pretense – false motive, out of envy and strife.
truth – true motives, out of goodwill and love.
The Word is getting out!
I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice – figure of speech polyptoton – repetition of
words in different forms. Joy, rejoice.
yea, and – (Grk.) alla. very emphatic “but”.
1 : 18 So what? I rejoice because Christ is proclaimed in every way, whether with ulterior or
The Word is still moving. It’s getting out. They were all speaking the truth but not all speaking
in love. This is why there was not that like-mindedness, the unity of the spirit, the basic doctrine
set in Ephesians 4.
Prayer starts in v. 9-10a: I pray that your love will increase and abound even more with full
knowledge and all spiritual insight so that you will be able to distinguish those things which are
Not everyone was doing their spiritual best, because of conceit, ego and envy which was
followed by discord. They made subtle innuendos and attacks on the man of God. They think
they’re right and they look good, but they’re doing it out of conceit. They’re moving the Word,
but for wrong motive. Ulterior motives. They hold the truth, but not held by the truth. Speaking
the truth, but not speaking the truth in love. They think they’re right, but their hearts are wrong.
A good heart with mistakes is better than an envious heart with religiously perfect behavior.
That’s the problem at Philippi. That’s the problem sometimes with our ministry.
Spiritual insight, full knowledge of the Word, coupled with the love of God in the renewed mind
in manifestation. Then really start moving the Word with love.
Zealous eyes but need the love. The Word is moving out. I rejoice in that, but I wish it were
with love. I’m thankful it’s moving.
Love people, serve people. Have the right attitude of service. Privilege of doing it together as
one Body, one household united.