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Galatians 2: 1-14 Corps - 1983 - Part 2

Format: mp3
Publication Date: 10-5-1983

Walter J. Cummins graduated from the Power for Abundant Class in 1962.  

He received his Bachelor of Science degree in Education from Ohio State University in 1968 and his Master of Education degree in Secondary School Administration in 1978 from Wright State University.

He was ordained to the Christian by The Way International in 1968. He has studied at The Way International under Victor Paul Wierwille and K.C.Pillai. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, he was director of the Research department of the Way International  and served as assistant to the president. 

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Historical Facts
Gallia, Acts 18, was the pro council at Corinth, the summer of 51 to the summer of 52 A.D. Some historians say 51-53. There is no documentation to determine who is right. Most of the time they served for just one year.
The soonest time Paul could have traveled to Corinth would be sometime in 51 A.D. The Jerusalem Council in Acts 15 had to transpire sometime between 49-51 A.D. Acts 18:2 - Aquilla and Priscilla left Rome and came to Corinth. Why did they leave Rome? Because Claudius had commanded all Judeans to leave Rome around 49 A.D.
Considering this time (51 A.D.) according to Judean reckoning, about 14 years before that would take you to the year 37 A.D. Galatians 2:1 – 14 years after, is this 14 years from the time of his conversion, or is it 14 years from his first visit to Jerusalem after the 3 years? If it was the later, then it would have been 17 years from his conversion (34 A.D.).
It is interesting that in the year 37 A.D. ARETUS took over Damascus and had war with Herod who represented Rome. II Corinthians 11:32,33; Acts 9 – Aretus died in 40 A.D. John 18:31, when they were taking Jesus to Pilate – Judeans said it is not lawful according to Roman law for us to put any man to death. That’s why the Romans (Pilate) had to do the dirty work. Now there is a record in Acts 7 about the Judeans stoning Stephen, which was before Paul’s conversion. One or two things happened, either they stoned Stephen illegally (which is very possible) or they stoned Stephen in the year 36 A.D., the year that Pilot was brought back to Rome and there was an interregnum, or a period of time when there was not a governor at Jerusalem between Pilot and the next governor that arrived. And so the Judeans were responsible for carrying out their own laws, since there was no Roman government at that time to take care of them.
The Word does not give us anymore specifics so we really do not know whether Paul’s conversion was in 34 or 37 A.D., but it is within that period of time. At least we know that for a period of 14 years, Paul did not have any contact with the leadership in the church at Jerusalem.
In Galatians 2:1 and Acts 15:1-3, one of those “certain others” had to be Titus.
2:1 He went to Jerusalem 14 years later about circumcision (Acts 15). Between his first visit Galatians 1:18 and the Galatians 2:1, he made another trip (Acts 9 and Acts 15) not mentioned in Galatians. End of Acts 11 and 12 – they divided the ABS. It was not over an issue. 44 AD – Herod dies, James killed, Peter put in prison.
(literal according to usage)
Then after fourteen years, I went to Jerusalem again with Barnabas, and I took Titus with me also.
2:2 When he (Paul) went the first time he went for a visit, the second time he went up he went to deliver the abundant sharing, this time it says he went up by revelation. How did I receive the Gospel? by revelation, not by man. And this time he went Jerusalem by revelation, (he is showing how through all these years, how he never had any intimate
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contact with the leadership at Jerusalem, so during that time he could not receive the gospel from men, but by revelation). But now he goes to Jerusalem by revelation because there is something lacking in his logic.
“communicated” – the Greek word is a word that is used in a legal sense. Where you present your case before a body, (i.e.) the Roman Senate. Here, before the apostles he presented his case.
“gospel” – Good news.
“preach” – Greek “kerusso”; Aramaic “kraz” – to preach or herald, term used of the trumpeters that heralded the games, has an air of formality about it.
“privately” – Paul didn’t go to everybody at Jerusalem, he went to the leaders of the church.
“of reputation” – seemed to be something (not in a negative air); church leadership; those who were prominent in the Church (see vs. 6 & 9)
“should run or had run” – compares his heralding to an athletic race
“vain” – Greek “kenos” – empty; hollow; without purpose or direction (because Paul lacked only the authority from the leadership at Jerusalem!). There are 4 Greek and Aramaic words translated vain, one means freely or for nothing. The other 3 are of importance to our understanding.
1. eike (Greek); Yiki (Aramaic) – without a cause or reason.
2. mataios (Greek); Ratala (Aramaic) – aimless, without purpose or direction.
3. kenos (Greek); Spizaith (Aramaic) – empty, hollow, without substance.
I Corinthians 15:2 usage #1; verse 10 #3; 14 #3; 17 #2; Galatians 2:2 #3
This was Paul’s purpose for going into the next section. He wasn’t out there representing himself, but the entire Body! He had a cause to preach the gospel; his purpose was that Christ was coming back. What he did lack, his credentials from the leadership at Jerusalem. He needed the substance; he needed the authority from the leadership at Jerusalem because they were the head of the church. He needed their love and blessing, he needed the authority from them. He is not out there by himself, but representing the entire church of the one body, the mystery. Had it not been for the Jerusalem council, the church would have split into two denominations (Acts 15).
(literal according to usage)
But that time I went according to the revelation I received and presented privately to the prominent Church leadership the gospel which I formally herald among the Gentiles, so that the race I am running or have run is not without formal credentials and authority.
2:3 “Greek” – There are four Aramaic words which could be translated this way:
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1. ama – (singular) used of Israel; (plural) ame – normally the word used for “Gentile” or “nations”. It should be translated “Gentiles” (see also vs. 9, 12, 14).
2. armaya – a dirty word for a “Greek” or “Gentile”, red neck, hippy, oky, polack. Derogatory term, sarcastic term – vs. 3, 14 (1).
3. yawnaya – Greek or hellinus, not necessarily mean Greek nationally, it could mean the Greek language, some of the Judean were Greek speaking.
4. chantha – pagan.
This verse is a parenthesis (a short parenthetical statement, thrown in). Note: verse 4 “false brethren” has nothing to do with verse 3; but in verse 2 – because of these false brethren, he is communicating unto them the gospel among the Gentiles.
(literal according to usage)
(however, even Titus, a Greek-Gentile who came with me, was not forced to be circumcised);
2:4 Because of false brethren, “unawares brought in”. They were secretly brought in. Introduced and brought into the fellowship under false pretenses.
“came in privily” – to enter
liberty – freedom – freedom contrast with bondage that the law represents. That is what they were trying to do, bring them back under the law.
(literal according to usage)
[I presented my case to them] because of false brothers who secretly infiltrated our fellowship to spy on the freedom we have in Christ Jesus so that they could enslave us.
2:5 “no” – did not give place by subjection (is the essence of how it should read).
“give place” – yield
“for an hour” – oriental custom – for a moment
“truth of the gospel” (used only here and in vs. 14). A “figure of speech”.
antiptosis – figure of exchange; cases are exchanged. Here the genitive is used for the nominative. It is similar to an antiptosis in Romans 5:17, abundance of Grace. Here, the true gospel - why so important? In 1:6, what was the issue??!!
“remain” – a staying constantly
(literal according to usage)
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But we did not give in to them for a moment, in order that the true gospel might remain steadfastly with you.
2:6 “But of these who seemed to be somewhat” – they were the prominent leaders. This doesn’t flow with his train of thought before the parenthesis. It is a figure of speech “anatoluthon”. A parenthetical phrase is used, then when you resume, you don’t pick up the same grammatical sense you started with.
Paul didn’t receive it from the prominent ones at Jerusalem, but by revelation! The leadership did not contradict him (but arguing for the authority that he has in Jerusalem).
“conference” – consultation (Paul didn’t consult with them at first – see 1:16), then when he did, they added nothing. They simply AGREED to what Paul taught. They did not add, subtract, or change anything. That’s the establishing of Paul’s authority which he brought up in verse 2.
“whatsoever they were” – the positions of the prominent leaders of the church didn’t matter to Paul because position is never a determining factor, it’s function! The function is more important than the position. It’s the Word that you teach and the Word that you live that matters!
God “accepteth no man’s person” – is no respecter of person, faith or position.
II Corinthians 5:16 - Paul did NOT know Christ in the flesh, though others bragged they had!
Acts 15:19ff – James was the head, the President! His position was head, but the question was “What did he speak?”
(literal according to usage)
And [what did I receive] from the prominent leadership? (Whatever position they hold makes no difference to me. God is not partial to position [only function].) These prominent leaders in the Church did not add to, delete, or change anything that I taught.
2:7 “of the un-circumcision and of the circumcision” – is a figure of speech “genitive of relation” – pertaining to
“was committed” – to be entrusted with (I Thessalonians 2:4). To preach it to the un-circumcision and then to the circumcision.
(literal according to usage)
But on the contrary, when they [the prominent leaders] saw that the [preaching of the] gospel to the uncircumcision was entrusted to me, as the [preaching of the] gospel to the circumcision was entrusted to Peter
2:8 Parenthesis – it brings up the apostleship (of genitive of relation) to the circumcision. The number 1 issue is Galatians.
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wrought – energeo – energized
(literal according to usage)
(for He Who energized the apostleship to the circumcision in Peter, energized the apostleship to the Gentiles in me, also),
2:9 James, Cephas and John, up in vs. 8 he’s called Peter, here he is called Cephas. It shows you how scribes sometimes wrote the Aramaic word and sometimes the Greek word. Peter, Petros is the Greek word. Cephas is the Aramaic word. Same meaning – it means stone. Simon was his original name. Jesus changed it to Cephas (Aramaic). Greek translated it to Peter.
Pillars are what hold up the temple. James, Peter and John were the top three of all of those in Jerusalem at the Jerusalem Council.
“grace” – divine favor – see Galatians 1:15. His apostleship was a doctrine of grace. He preaches the doctrine of grace (1:3, 4, 6; 2:21; 5:4; 6:18).
“perceived” – Ginosko – the apostleship as well as the doctrine.
“right hand of fellowship” – a token of friendship. It also was used to signify the election and inauguration of someone newly chosen, like a prince.
Here, Paul and Barnabus were elected by the pillars of the Church as the prominent men of Jerusalem to minister to the Gentiles. Acts 13 shows that God had already called them. Now Paul had the authority from the “pillars of the Church” that he needed so that his race would not be run without substance!
(literal according to usage)
and when they knew experientially of the divine favor given to me; James, Peter, and John, the prominent pillars, extended to Barnabas and me their right hands of fellowship and blessing with the understanding that we are apostles to the Gentiles and they are apostles to the circumcision.
2:10 See Romans 15:25-27 and Galatians 6:6; where they were there to give their money (ABS). The church, the poor at Jerusalem were not the beggars, it’s those that lived on the abundant sharing rather than working a secular job for a living (like Staff at our campuses). That is why it is called “poor” because they lived on needs. They were not poverty stricken!
I was forward – spudazo (gr.) – to be diligent.
(literal according to usage)
They only asked us to continue our abundant sharing, which, of course, I was most diligent to do.
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2:11 Acts 18:22, 23 – On the beginning of his 3rd itinerary, when he came to Ephesus, he writes back to the Gentiles.
“withstood” – reproved, Paul reproved Peter
“he was to be blamed” – Aramaic is clearer – “some were caused to stumble”.
(literal according to usage)
But when Peter came to Antioch, I reproved him to the face, because some were caused to stumble by him.
2:12 This is how Peter caused them to stumble. He ate with the Gentiles and then removed himself because of fear. After this great decision in Acts 15, Peter withdrew himself from the Gentiles. Peter blew it even after the laying on of hands!
(literal according to usage)
Before some men came from James, he ate with the Gentiles; but after they came, he strategically withdrew himself and ate separately because he feared what the circumcision party might think or say.
2:13 Dissimulation – hypocrisy, respecter of persons.
(literal according to usage)
The rest of the Judeans yielded to this discrimination also, with the result that even Barnabas was carried away with their discrimination.
2:14 In Acts 10 (re: the vision that he had) God told Peter to eat, but Peter responded that he wouldn’t eat anything that is unclean. In chapter 11 “eat what is set before you”, something did not click in Peter’s logic.
I Corinthians 9:19-23 – maybe this is what was doing through his head
I Corinthians 8:4, 8-13 – if you eat meat offered to an idol and you have got a weak young brother (a new believer), and he sees you eating that meat offered to an idol “oh, there must not be anything wrong with idolatry”. Before you know it he is back serving his old pagan God. Good example, an alcoholic – have a drink in front of him when he is trying to quit. This is not the case – those men came from James – prominent leaders in the church, they were not weak, neophytes. They were adults spiritually. Romans practical section is chapters 12-16. Corinthians doctrine in chapters 1-11. Galatians. Romans 14:1-3, 21-23; 15:1; Corinthians corrects this. This is not the issue in Galatia with Peter.
Romans 2:17-24 – this is what Peter’s problem was – he was not walking according to the doctrine that they had established at the council – Peter withdrew himself. Became all things to all men? – NO – it was the doctrinal issue that’s at stake here. Peter was off on that, Romans 2:25; 3:20. Peter was not living as to the decision that was agreed upon at
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the council. By the deeds of the law no flesh shall justify himself. What about becoming all things to the Gentiles? – a good question.
(literal according to usage)
However, when I saw that they did not walk in a straight line with the true gospel, I said to Peter in front of everybody, “If you, formerly a Judean, live like a Greek-Gentile and not like a Judean, why do you force Gentiles to adopt Judean traditions?”